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The economic system of Southern Africa is quickly creating, driving a rising demand for electrical energy. Effectively assembly this demand would require balancing social, financial, geographic, technological and environmental concerns.

Researchers at UC Santa Barbara led a global staff that analyzed the area’s sources and . Utilizing this knowledge, they developed an portfolio that the majority successfully meets Southern Africa’s 2040 energy necessities, discovering that wind and {solar} are the area’s most cost-effective choices. What’s extra, their mannequin’s proposal successfully freezes at 2020 ranges whereas doubling the quantity of the grid can produce. An in depth evaluation seems within the journal Joule.

Presently, Southern Africa’s 315 million folks use about 275 terawatt hours, roughly the identical quantity as California. “Nonetheless, Southern Africa is predicted to double its electrical energy demand by 2040,” stated co-lead and corresponding creator Ranjit Deshmukh, an assistant professor in UCSB’s Environmental Research Program. “Creating the area’s glorious wind, {solar} and pure fuel sources is the least costly choice for its customers, and might meet this demand with out rising the area’s electrical energy sector carbon emissions.”

Deshmukh and his colleagues additionally discovered that despite doubling its , the Southern Africa Energy Pool (SAPP) could not want any coal energy vegetation, nor wouldn’t it want half of its deliberate hydropower initiatives, each of which have doubtlessly huge environmental impacts.

To succeed in these conclusions, the staff employed a collection of fashions that account for a variety of structural, climatic and financial elements. Deshmukh and co-author Grace Wu, additionally at UC Santa Barbara, developed one of many instruments, known as MapRE, in 2020. “MapRE permits us to determine appropriate websites for wind and primarily based on windspeed, , proximity to and street infrastructure, and land makes use of,” stated Deshmukh, who leads the Clear Energy Transformation Lab (CETlab) and is a analysis affiliate on the Environmental Markets Lab (emLab).

Lead creator AFM Kamal Chowdhury, a postdoctoral researcher in Deshmukh’s group, created a hydropower mannequin known as VIC-Res-Southern-Africa. This mannequin estimates month-to-month electrical energy era from current and deliberate hydroelectric dams.

The authors took the info from MapRE and VIC-Res, in addition to current and deliberate era and transmission capability, and fed it to an electrical energy planning mannequin known as GridPath, which was developed by Deshmukh and co-author Ana Mileva. This mannequin output a beneficial energy portfolio. Each the mannequin and the datasets are opensource and publicly obtainable.

The outcomes have been encouraging. “If know-how and observe anticipated traits,” the authors wrote, “wind and {solar} applied sciences are more likely to dominate future electrical energy era investments in Southern Africa, and thus be the dominant supply of electrical energy within the area by 2040.”

Notably, the mannequin steered that coal energy will not be aggressive with these renewable energy sources. “The present fleet of coal energy vegetation are outdated and costly to function,” stated co-author Kudakwashe Ndhlukula. “With deeper regional integration, it will be uneconomic to function these energy vegetation anyway.” Ndhlukula is the manager director of the Southern African Growth Group Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Effectivity (SACREEE), an inter-governmental group that features the 12 nations within the Southern African Energy Pool.

With monetary help from international local weather funds, such because the Green Local weather Fund, the area’s coal-fire powerplants may even be retired early, the authors famous. The mannequin predicted that taking the facility stations offline 10 years early would enhance electrical energy prices by solely 4% yearly. This might additional lower greenhouse fuel emissions by 22% in contrast with 2020 ranges.

The researchers additionally discovered that Southern Africa requires a lot much less hydropower than anticipated. There’s a whole lot of further hydropower within the Southern African Energy Pool plan, and there is loads of potential to develop this useful resource, Deshmukh famous. “However, utilizing the SAPP’s price assumptions for hydropower—and the most recent wind, {solar} and battery storage prices—we discovered that our mannequin didn’t select nearly half the deliberate hydropower initiatives,” he stated. “Mainly, it isn’t cost-effective to spend money on these initiatives.”

The staff additionally ran a mannequin that included an 80% clear energy goal. Beneath this aim, an optimum portfolio would lower the area’s 2020 emissions in half by 2040 whereas solely rising prices by about 6%, or $3 per megawatt hour.

Along with planning how Southern Africa will generate electrical energy, effectively assembly its energy calls for would require worldwide cooperation. “Regional integration is essential to unlocking the immense potential of renewable energy for a cost-competitive electrical energy system within the area,” Ndhlukula stated.

A strong electrical energy market and the transmission capability to help it is going to even be essential. “Wind and pure fuel sources are inconsistently unfold out throughout southern Africa,” Deshmukh stated. “Having a sturdy transmission system will assist nations to commerce and profit from one another’s sources.”

Fortuitously, the area already has an electrical energy market with interconnected transmission strains within the type of the SAPP. “It is a query of increasing and scaling that market,” Deshmukh stated. The mannequin means that this may be achieved with a average enhance in transmission infrastructure.

The SAPP has 12 mainland nations, 9 of that are bodily interconnected by a shared grid as of now. Malawi’s connection can be accomplished by 2023, and there are plans so as to add the remaining two: Angola and Tanzania.

That is the primary of 4 papers the staff has produced as half of a bigger mission centered on Southern Africa’s energy future. They’re at present analyzing the outcomes of a stakeholder and policymaker survey to grasp obstacles to introducing renewable energy within the area. And they’re wanting on the potential biodiversity impacts of various renewable energy sources. Lastly, the group plans to evaluate how local weather change may impression the energy sector.

“This specific paper is predicated on present environmental situations,” Deshmukh stated. “The following paper will embrace the influences from local weather change.”


India has an ambitious plan for developing more renewable energy; researchers say the country can aim even higher


Extra info:
A.F.M. Kamal Chowdhury et al, Enabling a low-carbon electrical energy system for Southern Africa, Joule (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2022.06.030

Journal info:
Joule


Quotation:
Subtle fashions present a roadmap for Southern Africa’s clear energy future (2022, August 8)
retrieved 8 August 2022
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To help meet global EV demand, researchers develop sustainable method for recycling older lithium-ion batteries

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To help meet global EV demand, researchers develop sustainable method for recycling older lithium-ion batteries


Professor Gisele Azimi and PhD candidate Jiakai (Kevin) Zhang have proposed a brand new, extra sustainable methodology to get better helpful metals from lithium-ion batteries which have reached the tip of their helpful lives. Credit score: Safa Jinje

A College of Toronto researcher has developed a brand new method to assist recycle the metals in lithium-ion batteries, that are in excessive demand amid surging world gross sales of electrical automobiles.

Gisele Azimi, a professor within the departments of supplies science and engineering and chemical engineering and utilized chemistry within the School of Utilized Science & Engineering, and her workforce have proposed a brand new, extra to mine helpful metals—together with lithium, but additionally cobalt, nickel and manganese—from which have reached the tip of their helpful lifespan.

“Getting these metals from uncooked ore takes a variety of energy,” says Jiakai (Kevin) Zhang, a Ph.D. candidate in chemical engineering and utilized chemistry who’s lead writer on a brand new paper not too long ago revealed in Sources, Conservation and Recycling.

“If we recycle current batteries, we will maintain the constrained provide chain and assist deliver down the price of EV batteries, making the automobiles extra inexpensive.”

A part of Canada’s dedication to succeed in net-zero emissions by 2050 features a obligatory goal requiring 100% of recent light-duty automobiles and passenger vehicles offered within the nation to be electric by 2035.

Attaining this goal would require a rise within the provide of vital metals, the worth of which is already very excessive. For instance, cobalt, a key ingredient within the cathode manufacturing of lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (generally abbreviated as NMC) batteries extensively utilized in EVs, can be one of the costly parts of lithium-ion batteries attributable to its restricted reserve.

“We’re about to succeed in a degree the place many lithium-ion batteries are reaching their ,” says Azimi. ”These batteries are nonetheless very wealthy in components of curiosity and might present a vital useful resource for restoration.”

Not solely can recycling present these supplies at a decrease value, nevertheless it additionally reduces the necessity to mine uncooked ore that comes with environmental and moral prices.

The life expectancy of EV batteries is from 10 to twenty years, however most automotive producers solely present a assure for eight years or 160,000 kilometers—whichever comes first. When EV batteries attain finish of life, they are often refurbished for second-life makes use of or recycled to get better metals. However right now, many batteries are discarded improperly and find yourself in landfills.

“If we hold mining lithium, cobalt and nickel for batteries after which simply landfill them at end-of-life, there shall be a damaging environmental impression, particularly if corrosive electrolyte leaching happens and contaminates underground water programs,” says Zhang.

Standard processes for recycling lithium-ion batteries are based mostly on pyrometallurgy, which makes use of extraordinarily excessive temperature, or hydrometallurgy, which makes use of acids and decreasing brokers for extraction. These two processes are each energy intensive: pyrometallurgy produces greenhouse fuel emissions, whereas hydrometallurgy creates wastewater that must be processed and dealt with.

In distinction, Azimi’s lab group is utilizing supercritical fluid extraction to get better metals from end-of-life lithium-ion batteries. This course of separates one part from one other through the use of an extracting solvent at a temperature and strain above its vital level, the place it adopts the properties of each a liquid and a fuel.

To get better the metals, Zhang used carbon dioxide as a solvent, which was dropped at a supercritical section by growing the temperature above 31ºC, and the strain as much as 7 megapascals.

Within the paper, the workforce confirmed that this course of matched the extraction effectivity of lithium, nickel, cobalt and manganese to 90% when in comparison with the standard leaching processes, whereas additionally utilizing fewer chemical substances and producing considerably much less secondary waste. In actual fact, the primary supply of energy expended through the supercritical fluid extraction course of was as a result of compression of CO2.

“The benefit of our methodology is that we’re utilizing from the air because the solvent as an alternative of extremely hazardous acids or bases,” she says. “Carbon dioxide is plentiful, low cost and inert, and it is also simple to deal with, vent and recycle.” 

Supercritical fluid extraction just isn’t a brand new course of. It has been used within the meals and pharmaceutical industries to extract caffeine from espresso beans because the Nineteen Seventies. Azimi and her workforce’s work builds on earlier analysis within the Laboratory for Strategic Supplies to get better from nickel--hydride batteries.

Nevertheless, that is the primary time that this course of has been used to get better metals from lithium-ion batteries, she says.

“We actually imagine within the success and the advantages of this course of,” says Azimi.

“We are actually shifting in direction of commercialization of this methodology to extend its know-how readiness degree. Our subsequent step is to finalize partnerships to construct industrial-scale recycling amenities for secondary sources. If it is enabled, it will be a giant sport changer.”


Closed-loop cobalt recycling from spent lithium-ion batteries based on a deep eutectic solvent


Extra info:
Jiakai Zhang et al, Recycling of lithium, cobalt, nickel, and manganese from end-of-life lithium-ion battery of an electrical automobile utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide, Sources, Conservation and Recycling (2022). DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106628

Quotation:
To assist meet world EV demand, researchers develop sustainable methodology for recycling older lithium-ion batteries (2022, October 4)
retrieved 5 October 2022
from https://techxplore.com/information/2022-10-global-ev-demand-sustainable-method.html

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Using microwaves for low-cost production of alkali metallic phosphate nanocomposites for use in sodium-ion batteries

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Using microwaves for low-cost production of alkali metallic phosphate nanocomposites for use in sodium-ion batteries


Using microwaves for low-cost production of alkali metallic phosphate nanocomposites for use in sodium-ion batteries
Synthesis means of sodium iron phosphate via ball milling and microwave assisted and meeting of associated batteries and supercapacitors. Credit score: Scientific Experiences (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-20329-x

A staff of researchers at Superior Expertise and New Supplies Analysis Institute in Egypt has developed a quick and cheap solution to synthesize alkali metallic phosphate nanocomposites to be used in sodium-ion batteries. Of their paper revealed within the journal Scientific Experiences, the group describes their course of and the way properly it labored.

With the continued rising demand for battery-powered merchandise reminiscent of vehicles and telephones, there’s elevated consideration centered on batteries. The present normal is the . However is getting more durable to seek out as it’s not very plentiful, so scientists have been searching for different. To this point, sodium-ion batteries appear to carry probably the most promise. Sodium is kind of plentiful and straightforward to mine, and batteries made with it could be a lot greener than these made with lithium—and safer as a result of they might not pose an explosion danger.

Sadly, such batteries nonetheless price extra to make than , which is why researchers such because the staff in Egypt are searching for cheaper methods to make them. On this new effort, they’ve developed a that entails the usage of microwaves as a heating mechanism.

The brand new methodology concerned first mixing Fe3(PO4)2, 8 H2O, Na2HPO4, glucose and ACM. As soon as combined, the fabric was ball milled after which positioned in a microwave gadget (the researchers used an ordinary off-the-shelf microwave oven) together with a mix of rice straw ash to facilitate heating.

After heating after which cooling, the ensuing materials was a mixture of sodium, iron phosphates-carbon nanocomposites that may very well be used to make a sodium-ion battery cathode. The researchers word that the heating course of occurs in roughly 60 seconds. Additionally they word their processing approach is considerably sooner than others which have been tried and doesn’t contain the usage of high-purity inert gases throughout any stage of processing, which, they level out, reduces the price of manufacturing.

The researchers word that along with use in making , the approach they developed may be used to make sodium-ion supercapacitors.


Block copolymer electrolyte used to make stable sodium metal batteries


Extra info:
Wael Wazeer et al, Extremely-fast green microwave assisted synthesis of NaFePO4-C nanocomposites for sodium ion batteries and supercapacitors, Scientific Experiences (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-20329-x

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Utilizing microwaves for low-cost manufacturing of alkali metallic phosphate nanocomposites to be used in sodium-ion batteries (2022, October 4)
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Online tool offers industry easier way to track carbon footprint

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Online tool offers industry easier way to track carbon footprint


Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed an online tool that offers industrial plants an easier way to track and download information about their energy footprint and carbon emissions.

Visualizing Energy Reporting Information and Financial Implications, or VERIFI, is a tool that uses an open-source framework with a utility dashboard. It allows energy coordinators and plant managers to monitor and improve their understanding of energy and water use patterns including the amount of carbon emitted from . Users can generate automatic reports, too.

“Industries want to know how to conserve and improve efficiency while reducing costs but often don’t know how to begin or lack the time to track it,” ORNL’s Kristina Armstrong said. “VERIFI provides a user-friendly platform for monitoring energy efficiency benchmarks and baselines and allows for the visualization of energy and utility bills.”


New evaluation framework for energy neutrality potential of wastewater treatment plants


Citation:
Online tool offers industry easier way to track carbon footprint (2022, October 4)
retrieved 4 October 2022
from https://techxplore.com/news/2022-10-online-tool-industry-easier-track.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.





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