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Offshore wind lease gross sales are a considerably higher use of ocean acreage than oil and gasoline—for energy customers, taxpayers, and the local weather.

Introduction and abstract

The Inflation Discount Act of 2022 is the most important federal local weather funding in U.S. historical past and guarantees to place the nation on monitor to scale back emissions to 40 % under 2005 ranges by 2030.1 Nonetheless, the oil foyer managed to tuck in provisions that will mandate a sequence of fossil gas lease gross sales in addition to a coverage that shackles new wind and {solar} initiatives to grease and gasoline leasing in public lands and waters.2 That is even if renewables are increasing at a sooner fee than fossil fuels and lead to significantly stronger advantages for communities, customers, and the financial system.3

President Joe Biden’s administration has demonstrated its deal with dramatic expansions of offshore wind energy fairly than polluting and harmful oil and gasoline. In truth, the administration canceled three fossil gas lease gross sales in 2022 resulting from an absence of trade curiosity.4 In distinction, there are at the moment 18 energetic offshore wind leases with 14 new website evaluation plans accredited, together with the scoping of the primary wind energy areas within the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Maine.5 This momentum will contribute to the US reaching and surpassing its objective of deploying 30 gigawatts of offshore wind energy by 2030.6 Furthermore, these insurance policies not solely transfer the administration nearer to its nationwide and worldwide local weather commitments but additionally maximize the advantages that Individuals obtain from clear energy growth on public waters.

A brand new Middle for American Progress evaluation discovered that, per acre, Individuals are getting considerably extra return on funding from offshore wind energy leasing than they’re from oil and gasoline leasing. That is true throughout the board, from taxpayer income to energy manufacturing, client energy prices, and carbon emissions. The typical acre from an offshore wind lease sale brings in practically 12,500 % extra income for taxpayers than 1 acre of oil whereas offering sufficient electrical energy to drive an electrical car virtually 65 occasions farther than a gasoline-powered car.

Offshore wind leases are a large potential supply of public income and a robust funding for taxpayers, one that might additionally scale back energy and gas prices and that has far fewer environmental and well being prices than fossil fuels. With these alternatives for a climate- and human-friendly financial system, there has by no means been a greater time to modify to wind-focused ocean energy growth.

Offshore wind brings in rather more public income from lease gross sales than oil and gasoline

The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) exists between state and worldwide waters, and its assets—together with renewable and fossil gas energy—are managed by the U.S. Division of the Inside’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration (BOEM). In recent times, offshore wind leases had been offered for practically 12,500 % extra per acre than their fossil gas counterparts, whereas nonetheless offering comparable prices for customers. A better comparative take a look at the 2 leasing processes reveals precisely how Individuals lose out when the nation invests in offshore oil.

BOEM’s oil and gasoline leasing schedule is decided by its five-year plan, and every lease sale undergoes a number of steps in coordination with the Nationwide Environmental Coverage Act of 1969 (NEPA). Throughout these aggressive lease gross sales, corporations submit bids for the correct to extract these publicly owned assets, and the successful bid, or bonus, is paid to safe a lease. Firms decide the utmost bidding level at which they’re prepared to pay for a lease by taking into consideration future value uncertainty, useful resource uncertainty, and environmental danger.7 The typical successful bid from offshore oil and gasoline lease gross sales from 2019 to the current is $47 per acre.

Offshore wind versus oil and gasoline: By the numbers


Common successful bid per acre from offshore oil and gasoline lease gross sales (2019–current)


Common successful bid per acre from offshore wind gross sales


Extra income for taxpayers introduced in by offshore wind lease gross sales versus oil and gasoline lease gross sales

The offshore wind leasing course of is comparable: Throughout lease gross sales, corporations submit bids for the correct to assemble and deploy wind generators, with the successful bid paid to safe that lease.8 Nonetheless, as a result of the wind energy market is extra steady, coverage and capital markets are favorable, and the environmental danger is low, wind leases promote for significantly extra per acre than their oil and gasoline counterparts.9 The typical successful bid from all of BOEM’s offshore wind gross sales is $5,906 per acre.

Nonetheless, offshore wind energy has a bonus over fossil fuels on greater than a price-per-acre foundation; additionally it is bringing in extra money for the energy it’s anticipated to supply. Offshore wind bid funds per anticipated megawatt-hour (MWh) are 217 % greater than they’re for oil and gasoline.10 Elevated deal with renewables might subsequently improve income generated by means of offshore leasing tremendously, maximizing returns on public assets.

Desk 1


Wind advantages employees

Offshore wind just isn’t solely a greater possibility for the surroundings but additionally a greater deal for employees and the general public. Offshore oil and gasoline is sort of an solely nonunion trade, usually counting on overseas employees all through the extraction course of.11 In distinction, offshore wind is placing employees first. Each challenge constructed and at the moment below development operates below a challenge labor settlement—a collective bargaining settlement between a union and employer that covers phrases of employment.12 As well as, there are robust commitments from trade and governments to make sure that the development, operations, and upkeep of those initiatives present high-quality jobs13 and use more and more extra domestically manufactured supplies.14

1 acre of offshore wind leasing produces extra usable energy for much less

Traditionally, oil and gasoline have been thought-about essentially the most cost-efficient sources of energy resulting from their excessive energy density and relative ease to move, particularly amongst choices accessible for offshore exploitation. Nonetheless, most of the remaining main oil deposits are in deeper waters which are farther from shore and have greater exploration and tools prices and dangers.15 With offshore wind growth prices plummeting and multisector energy grids shortly electrifying, the cost-to-energy-output ratio is beginning to swing in favor of wind.16

Since all taxpayers are energy customers, energy prices are additionally necessary to the American public. Client prices are straight tied to demand in addition to energy manufacturing charges; and never each single leased acre of a fossil gas lease really finally ends up being productive—i.e., having energetic oil and gasoline extraction. Usually, lower than one-third of that leased area is used for extraction in a given 12 months.17 One common productive acre of pure gasoline leasing produces simply 34 MWh, whereas offshore wind exceeds this at 40.8 MWh per acre. For offshore wind, that’s sufficient energy to drive a median electric automobile practically 118,000 miles, the equal of driving from coast to coast in the US 42 occasions—and notably, 18,000 miles farther than the gap achievable utilizing the ability generated from pure gasoline. One acre’s annual output of consumer-grade gasoline is simply sufficient to drive 1,917 miles, or concerning the distance from New York Metropolis to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Determine 1


For gas customers, nevertheless, mileage is irrelevant if that distance just isn’t reasonably priced on the pump—or plug. In August 2022, when the typical gallon of gasoline value $3.82,18 a drive from New York Metropolis to Albuquerque would value about $332. That very same drive in an electrical car would value lower than $58.19 Offshore wind is, after all, solely a part of the clear energy matrix; these costs have been dropping for years, and the speed of lower is rising exponentially.20

Venture lifetime electrical energy prices are decrease for offshore wind

The levelized value of energy (LCOE), outlined as “the worth at which the generated electrical energy needs to be offered for the system to interrupt even on the finish of its lifetime,” is a great tool for evaluating energy sources.21 Primarily, the LCOE determines the cost-effectiveness of every measured energy supply on a per-MWh foundation and is an acceptable stand-in as a unit of energy worth.22

Whereas the LCOE for electrical energy generated in offshore wind farms is at the moment barely greater than that of gasoline—$66–$100 per MWh versus $45–$74 per MWh, respectively—the more and more speedy deployment of wind generators on the OCS is predicted to carry prices down considerably.23 By 2030, wind energy is estimated to be practically 28 % cheaper to supply over a challenge lifetime than the present LCOE for gasoline, which is projected to extend over the subsequent decade.24 Given new investments in offshore wind by means of govt motion, within the Inflation Discount Act,25 and prioritization from BOEM,26 the LCOE of offshore wind could possibly be even decrease by 2030.

Determine 2


Spills and cleanup prices are negligible with offshore wind

Fossil gas extraction is, after all, inherently a unclean trade. Though catastrophic spills are considerably much less widespread than smaller spills, they require a number of orders of magnitude extra money and time for remediation. The Oil Air pollution Act of 1990 codified that cleanup value accountability lies with these answerable for the spills,27 however the direct line of value accountability just isn’t all the time seamless, and spill remediation prices, reimbursement traces, and delayed environmental and human impacts should not simple.28

Specifically, deserted and orphaned oil wells signify a severe environmental spill danger and taxpayer burden.29 Their tendency to leak usually goes unnoticed and unaddressed for months and even years, releasing tons of dangerous crude oil and gasoline into public waters.30 House owners of decommissioned wells have been recognized to chop corners by “briefly” abandoning them for many years to keep away from the costly decommissioning prices.31 If the earlier homeowners have declared chapter or now not exist, the accountability as soon as once more falls on taxpayers. In California, for instance, when the homeowners of Platform Holly and wells on the Rincon Pier declared chapter, they left California taxpayers with a $115 million decommissioning invoice.32

Moreover, spill damages related to high quality of life and ecosystem well being are sometimes undervalued, and social damages—together with compelled livelihood adjustments and perceived worth shifts of polluted areas—should not solely lined by punitive harm prices. After the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989, as an illustration, a contingent valuation research discovered that the general public was prepared to pay a minimal of $2.8 billion in taxpayer cash to cowl harm to the surroundings and wildlife—significantly greater than the $1 billion Exxon was held answerable for.33 As a rule, the prices not lined by the spiller find yourself being shouldered by taxpayers, both straight by way of private way of life value will increase and quality-of-life adjustments or not directly by means of diverted tax income streams.

Moreover, oil corporations can write off their revenue losses towards their taxes to recoup cash paid in fines and cleanup prices, leaving taxpayers with a better burden to help the drop in authorities income. BP efficiently used this tax write-off methodology to realize again $10 billion of the $60 billion the corporate paid in damages for the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe in 2010.34

Taxpayers deserve a greater energy trade that doesn’t pollute their coasts and swindle them out of remediation prices. Moreover, hazardous waste services are incessantly situated adjoining to traditionally marginalized communities, akin to within the aptly named “Most cancers Alley” in Louisiana, the place residents face the specter of oil spills and refining processes that depress well being outcomes.35 Offshore wind generators, in distinction, don’t produce dangerous chemical compounds or waste merchandise when producing electrical energy—and in consequence, there are not any harmful chemical compounds that could possibly be spilled. Likewise, leaks can not happen, and decommissioning wind generators is a a lot cleaner and easier job.36

Offshore wind advantages the local weather and communities

Neighborhood well being and local weather stability are intimately related, and the impacts of the continual launch of greenhouse gasses into the environment highlights the necessity to transition the nation’s energy combine. The annual emissions produced from 1 common acre of offshore oil and gasoline leasing reveals the stark distinction between carbon-based versus wind leasing. On common, 201 barrels of crude oil are produced yearly in 1 actively productive acre within the Gulf of Mexico, which has the potential to emit 87 metric tons of carbon dioxide.37 A latest research discovered that offshore oil drilling operations could also be emitting significantly extra greenhouse gasses than beforehand understood.38 One acre of offshore wind, in the meantime, avoids emissions equal to almost 30 metric tons of carbon dioxide annually.

Determine 3


Moreover, fossil fuels have to be transported—usually tons of or hundreds of miles—to energy era websites earlier than they can be utilized, emitting much more carbon all through that transport course of.39

The prices of carbon emissions prolong past direct local weather results: The social value of carbon (SCC), which quantifies the financial harm estimated to happen from emitting 1 ton of carbon dioxide, impacts all ranges of society.40 The offshore oil and gasoline trade is answerable for a major quantity of carbon emissions per 12 months, and the related annual SCC for a median acre of extraction is $2,794 for gasoline and $16,040 for oil.41 Industries sustaining coastal economies must account for these prices to take care of solvency—particularly fisheries, tourism, and agriculture.

By comparability, the SCC of offshore wind energy is negligible.42 Even when contemplating emissions from development and upkeep, the SCC of offshore wind is lower than five-thousandths of a cent ($0.000045) per acre.43 Based on the U.S. Division of Energy, the well being and local weather advantages of offshore wind energy had been estimated to be $76 per MWh for installations in 2020—or $3,101 per acre. And contemplating the human value of fossil fuels, offshore wind represents the US’ strongest social funding alternative.44

A big enlargement of offshore wind leasing is a viable and financially smart various to the US’ largely oil-based ocean energy financial system. The Biden administration has been working judiciously to evaluate, determine, and approve potential new wind energy growth zones, and trade is exhibiting robust curiosity throughout the board. In areas such because the Gulf of Mexico, which has been traditionally dominated by the oil trade, the prevailing offshore energy provide chain and deployment infrastructure have created a gorgeous surroundings for utility-scale wind funding and are already attracting trade consideration—to not point out the numerous increase to Gulf state economies.45

Sadly, the Inflation Discount Act’s provisions tying new offshore wind to grease leasing haven’t any foundation within the actuality of unpolluted energy enlargement and threaten to hamstring wind growth and jeopardize what has proved to be a extra environment friendly and economical energy supply. In executing the legislation’s leasing necessities, the Biden administration should lease as little new fossil gas acreage as attainable whereas prioritizing and maximizing offshore wind.

Offshore wind has proved itself to be essentially the most environment friendly and cost-effective use of OCS leasing acreage. The advantages for the home financial system to taxpayers, and to employees and energy customers, are unmatched by offshore wind’s crude oil and pure gasoline counterparts—the environmental, well being, and monetary prices of that are a drain on livelihoods and financial assets. Publicly owned ocean assets needs to be leased in a fashion that leads to the best returns to the taxpaying public. Wind energy presents a better return on funding for the general public and will increase income in addition to social worth.

President Biden has and may proceed to make use of the nation’s offshore assets within the smartest and most economical methods attainable. Prioritizing offshore wind has finished simply that. New investments and commitments to offshore wind leasing introduced in President Biden’s July 20, 2022, govt actions,46 coupled with these included within the Inflation Discount Act, are vital. They mark a daring technique that may result in a stronger ocean energy financial system and a more healthy populace.


The creator want to thank Zainab Mirza, Miriam Goldstein, Jennifer Rowland-Shea, Mark Haggerty, Mike Williams, Nicole Gentile, Corinne Muller, Shanée Simhoni, Steve Bonitatibus, Invoice Rapp, and Keenan Alexander for his or her contributions to this report.


As a result of wind turbine era expectations are very simple and properly documented, manufacturing is well forecast—even for initiatives not but constructed. Utility-scale wind energy initiatives usually report their electrical energy output by way of “nameplate era,” or the quantity of electrical energy that will be generated if all generators had been working at their most capability for one 12 months. Since real-world situations not often—if ever—attain this degree of manufacturing for lengthy, the trade customary for the “anticipated” era is to make use of a capability issue, or an anticipated common era degree, of nameplate capability. The New York Bight and Carolina Lengthy Bay wind energy initiatives below growth off the coasts of New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, and South Carolina are the one giant, utility-scale offshore wind lease gross sales held in the US to date, and the creator used their information for all per-acre analyses. These initiatives have a mixed nameplate capability of 6,901 MWh throughout 598,292 leased acres, which quantities to about 102 MWh per acre. Right here, the evaluation used the initiatives’ anticipated 40 % capability issue output of 40.8 MWh per acre.47

Oil and gasoline basically share the identical extraction and leasing pipeline. Since OCS leases are offered for mixed oil and gasoline extraction rights fairly than separate leases for oil and gasoline, corporations can—and do—extract each merchandise from the identical leased areas. Nonetheless, extraction values are solely reported by way of whole leased space and whole acreage present process extraction and should not damaged down by product.48 Oil and gasoline manufacturing values are revealed for every area as an entire, and for these analyses, the creator used values from the Gulf of Mexico for 2019 by means of 2021.49 From this, the creator was in a position to estimate the quantity of every product extracted per actively productive acre, lease sale worth, and worth to taxpayers—though doing so limits the evaluation to estimates flattened throughout all producing acres.

Making comparisons throughout energy sources is an important a part of discussing utilization of the identical bodily ocean acreage. Evaluating wind energy with pure gasoline is pretty simple; each energy sources lead to electrical energy as their closing product, and with the LCOE used as a standard variable to include all challenge elements, total unit value comparisons are easy. Evaluating wind energy era with crude oil extraction is a much less simple course of, nevertheless, since their closing merchandise are electrical energy and liquid fuels, respectively. Their use in transportation, potential for overlapping leasing area, and the U.S. Environmental Safety Company’s carbon emissions/carbon offset conversion calculator permits that soar to be made with minimal further effort.50 Utilizing this software, it was attainable to determine the product of 1 12 months’s value of oil extraction throughout 1 acre of leasing and, as with gasoline and wind energy, its equal emissions and energy values. Since solely about 40 % of every barrel really finally ends up turning into gasoline, the creator used this decrease worth for calculations involving car miles and car emissions.51

  1. Ben King, John Larsen, and Hannah Kolus, “A Congressional Local weather Breakthrough,” Rhodium Group, July 28, 2022, accessible at
  2. Inflation Discount Act of 2022, Public Legislation 117-169, 117th Cong., 2nd sess. (August 16, 2022), accessible at
  3. Justin Worland, “Renewable Energy Continues to Beat Fossil Fuels,” Time, February 8, 2017, accessible at; Wind Energy Applied sciences Workplace, “How Wind Energy Can Assist Us Breathe Simpler,” U.S. Division of Energy, August 16, 2022, accessible at
  4. Anna Phillips, “Biden pulls 3 offshore oil lease gross sales, curbing new drilling this 12 months,” The Washington Publish, Might 11, 2022, accessible at
  5. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Offshore Wind Leasing Path Ahead 2021–2025,” October 2021, accessible at; U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “BOEM Declares Subsequent Steps for Offshore Wind Energy in Gulf of Mexico,” July 20, 2022, accessible at; U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Biden-Harris Administration Continues Offshore Wind Momentum, Declares Subsequent Steps for Gulf of Maine,” Press launch, August 18, 2022, accessible at
  6. The White Home, “Truth Sheet: Biden Administration Launches New Federal-State Offshore Wind Partnership to Develop American-Made Clear Energy,” Press launch, June 23, 2022, accessible at
  7. Hayne E. Leland, “Optimum Threat Sharing and the Leasing of Pure Assets, with Utility to Oil and Fuel Leasing on the Ocs,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 92 (3) (1978): 413–438, accessible at
  8. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Lease Gross sales,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022).
  9. Andrew Beattie, “The Economics of Oil Extraction,” Investopedia, January 26, 2022, accessible at; U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Price range Justifications and Efficiency Data Fiscal 12 months 2023” (Washington: 2022), accessible at; Samuel Beirne, “Offshore Wind V. Offshore Drilling within the Atlantic: Economically, Which Wins?”, Environmental and Energy Examine Institute, January 28, 2015, accessible at
  10. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Price range Justifications and Efficiency Data Fiscal 12 months 2023.”
  11. Dean Corgey, “Lack of union employees hurts offshore oil trade,” The Houston Chronicle, June 10, 2010, accessible at; Sara Sneath, “Oil employees on foreign-flagged Ships are on the mercy of companies,” New Orleans Public Radio, March 9, 2022, accessible at
  12. North America’s Constructing Trades Unions, “Venture Labor Agreements (PLA),” accessible at (final accessed September 2022).
  13. Ørsted, “North America’s Constructing Trades Unions and Ørsted Conform to Construct an American Offshore Wind Energy Trade with American Labor,” Might 5, 2022, accessible at
  14. The White Home, “Truth Sheet: Biden Administration Launches New Federal-State Offshore Wind Partnership to Develop American-Made Clear Energy.”
  15. Helen Sheplyakova, “Deepwater oil drilling: discovering execs and cons of a controversial trade,” Medium, July 6, 2017, accessible at
  16. Lazard, “Lazard’s Levelized Value of Energy Evaluation—Model 15.0” (New York: 2021), accessible at; Walter Musial and others, “Offshore Wind Market Report: 2021 Version” (Washington: U.S. Division of Energy, 2021), accessible at
  17. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Mixed Leasing Standing Report: 2019-2021,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022).
  18. U.S. Energy Data Administration, “Petroleum and Different Liquids: Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Costs,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022).
  19. U.S. Division of Energy, “Different Fuels Knowledge Middle,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022).
  20. Lazard, “Lazard’s Levelized Value of Energy Evaluation—Model 15.0.”
  21. ScienceDirect, “Levelized Value of Electrical energy,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022).
  22. Ibid.; U.S. Energy Data Administration, “Levelized Prices of New Era Assets within the Annual Energy Outlook 2022” (Washington: 2022), accessible at
  23. Lazard, “Lazard’s Levelized Value of Energy Evaluation—Model 15.0”; Musial and others, “Offshore Wind Market Report: 2021 Version.”
  24. Worldwide Energy Company, “Levelised Value of Electrical energy Calculator,” December 9, 2020, accessible at
  25. The White Home, “Truth Sheet: President Biden’s Govt Actions on Local weather to Deal with Excessive Warmth and Increase Offshore Wind,” Press launch, July 20, 2022, accessible at; Orrick, “Inflation Discount Act Implications for Renewables and Energy Transition,” July 31, 2022, accessible at; Lynn Mucenski Keck, “How Democrats’ New Price range Deal Boosts Tax Credit For Renewable Electrical energy Manufacturing,” Forbes, August 2, 2022, accessible at
  26. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “State Actions,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022).
  27. Oil Air pollution Act of 1990, Public Legislation 101-380, a hundred and first Cong., 2nd sess. (August 18, 1990), accessible at
  28. Tim McDonnell, “California’s oil spill is proof that local weather motion is value the fee,” Quartz, October 4, 2021, accessible at
  29. Mark Agerton and others, “Contemplating a Federal Program to Completely Plug and Abandon Offshore Oil and Fuel Wells” (New York: Columbia College Middle on International Energy Coverage, 2022), accessible at
  30. Zainab Mirza, Say Sanchez, and Miriam Goldstein, “Fixing Deserted Offshore Oil Wells Can Create Jobs and Shield the Ocean,” Middle for American Progress, April 20, 2022, accessible at
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Mark A. Cohen, “A Taxonomy of Oil Spill Prices: What are the Possible Prices of the Deepwater Horizon Spill?” (Washington: Assets for the Future, 2010), accessible at
  34. Jia Lynn Yang, “BP to chop U.S. tax invoice by $10 billion due to losses in gulf spill,” The Washington Publish, July 27, 2010, accessible at
  35. Tristan Baurick and others, “Welcome to ‘Most cancers Alley,’ The place Poisonous Air Is About to Get Worse,” ProPublica, October 30, 2019, accessible at
  36. Eva Topham and others, “Recycling offshore wind farms at decommissioning stage,” Energy Coverage 129 (2019): 698–709, accessible at
  37. U.S. Environmental Safety Company, “Greenhouse Fuel Equivalencies Calculator,” accessible at (final accessed August 2022); U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Lease Gross sales”; U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Mixed Leasing Standing Report: 2019–2021.”
  38. Alana Ok. Ayasse and others, “Methane distant sensing and emission quantification of offshore shallow water oil and gasoline platforms within the Gulf of Mexico,” Environmental Analysis Letters 17 (2022), accessible at
  39. Wind Energy Applied sciences Workplace, “Prime 10 Issues You Didn’t Know About Offshore Wind Energy,” U.S. Division of Energy, August 16, 2022, accessible at
  40. Alison Cassady, “Hidden Prices: President Trump’s Marketing campaign to Erase the Social Value of Carbon” (Washington: Middle for American Progress, 2017), accessible at; U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “2023–2028 Nationwide Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Fuel Leasing Proposed Program” (Washington: U.S. Division of the Inside, 2022), accessible at; Kevin Rennert and others, “Complete Proof Implies a Greater Social Value of CO2,” Nature (2022), accessible at
  41. Rennert and others, “Complete Proof Implies a Greater Social Value of CO2.”
  42. Sea Grant Rhode Island, “Offshore renewable energy improves habitat, will increase fish,” June 26, 2020, accessible at
  43. Ørsted, “What’s the carbon footprint of offshore wind?”, accessible at,hour%20(kWh)%20of%20electricity (final accessed August 2022).
  44. Wind Energy Applied sciences Workplace, “How Wind Energy Can Assist Us Breathe Simpler”; U.S. Division of Energy, “DOE Releases New Experiences Highlighting Report Development, Declining Prices of Wind Energy,” August 30, 2021, accessible at
  45. Tristan Baurick, “The Gulf of Mexico is poised for a wind energy increase. ‘The one query is when.’”, The Instances-Picayune/New Orleans Advocate, November 24, 2021, accessible at
  46. The White Home, “Truth Sheet: President Biden’s Govt Actions on Local weather to Deal with Excessive Warmth and Increase Offshore Wind.”
  47. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “State Actions.”
  48. U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Administration, “Mixed Leasing Standing Report: 2019–2021.”
  49. Ibid.
  50. U.S. Environmental Safety Company, “Greenhouse Fuel Equivalencies Calculator.”
  51. U.S. Division of Energy, “Truth #676: Might 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil,” Might 23, 2011, accessible at,Fact%20%23676%3A%20May%2023%2C%202011%20U.S.%20Refiners%20Produce%20about,from%20a%20Barrel%20of%20Oil&text=A%20standard%20U.S.%20barrel%20contains,an%20additional%206%25%20of%20product.


Michael Freeman

Coverage Analyst

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In Piatt County, wind farm rules discussions delayed



Swiss wind park ordered to scale back to protect birds

MONTICELLO – The Piatt County Zoning Board of Appeals will wait till late October earlier than contemplating a algorithm and procedures for the upcoming public hearings on the proposed Goose Creek Wind Farm.

“These will not be prepared but,” board Chairman Loyd Wax mentioned on the group’s final assembly. “They haven’t been completed. They aren’t prepared. We don’t have them in hand so that you can take a look at, so in my view, the one factor we will do is to get a movement to desk this and take into account this at our subsequent scheduled zoning assembly.”

The subsequent scheduled assembly is Oct. 27.

It’s a setback for Apex Energy, which has proposed a revenue-sharing settlement with the county if the challenge and constructing permits are accredited by Dec. 31.

Previous to consideration by the county board, the 1,600-page special-use allow utility should be thought-about by the zoning board of appeals. This might be accomplished by a collection of public hearings, throughout which each officers from Apex and opponents of the challenge will present enter.

The zoning board will then make a suggestion to the county board.

With the delay in approval of the foundations and procedures, it isn’t identified when the general public hearings might be scheduled.

If the zoning board waits till Oct. 27 to grant approvals, hearings wouldn’t be scheduled till November on the earliest.

Apex Energy is looking for approval for as much as 60 wind turbine websites within the northern portion of Piatt County. Of the accredited areas, 50 complete generators could be constructed.

Kelly Vetter of Monticello requested the board through the public remark session to rigorously take into account the proof as soon as the hearings are held.

“Possibly nobody is admittedly paying consideration, however do you understand that by weakening our ordinances to accommodate the wind company, there might be a floodgate open to the opportunists who will insist that you just allow them to in since you let Apex in?” she mentioned. “Already, there are wind firms ready to see the way it goes, to allow them to blast the countryside with these lumbering, ugly giants.”

Jim Reed, a farmer from DeLand, requested the board to take a step again as a county, take a look at the prime farm floor and determine what an applicable productiveness index could be, to assist consider selections for renewable energy sources akin to {solar} and wind energy.

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Plans submitted for lifetime extension of wind farm near Lancaster



Swiss wind park ordered to scale back to protect birds

Credit score:  By Gayle Rouncivell |

Lancaster Guardian |

Wednesday, twenty eighth September 2022 |

A planning software which might prolong the lifespan of an present south Cumbria wind farm has been submitted to South Lakeland District Council for evaluate.

The Armistead Wind Farm, which sits to the east of the M6 between junctions 36 and 37, has been operational since 2013 and was initially given permission to run for 25 years.

However having carried out complete common upkeep work on the six-turbine scheme and reviewed its ongoing operational efficiency, operator Banks Renewables has utilized for permission to run the six-turbine scheme for an extra 15 years, taking the anticipated lifetime of the mission to a most of 40 years as an alternative.

No different features of the wind farm would change as a part of the planning software, no new generators are being deliberate and all the prevailing planning circumstances beneath which it presently operates, together with these which shield the residential amenity of native residents, would stay unaltered.

The planning software is anticipated to be thought-about by early within the new 12 months.

The Armistead Wind Farm generated greater than 25,000 MWh of green electrical energy throughout Banks Renewables’ final monetary 12 months, which is sufficient to meet the annual electrical necessities of greater than 8,000 houses, and by doing so, it displaced greater than 5,300 tonnes of carbon dioxide from the UK’s electrical energy provide community.

It additionally generates virtually £14,000 yearly for the Armistead Wind Farm Advantages Fund, which helps local people and environmental tasks put ahead by native voluntary teams and charities and which might even be prolonged for an extra 15 years if the planning software is authorised.

Earlier grant recipients have included Mansergh Parish Assembly, Kirkby Lonsdale RUFC, Preston Patrick Memorial Corridor, St John the Baptist Church in Previous Hutton and New Hutton Institute.

Banks Renewables just lately accomplished the newest part of its ongoing upkeep programme at Armistead, with the gearbox being changed on turbine primary to make sure it continues to function at most effectivity.

Lewis Stokes, senior neighborhood relations supervisor on the Banks Group, says: “The Armistead Wind Farm has been working effectively for nearly a decade, and with the numerous environmental, energy safety and neighborhood advantages it’s delivering, we strongly imagine that it is sensible to increase its potential operational lifespan.”
“Many organisations throughout native communities have benefited from revenues generated by the wind farm and lengthening its lifespan would imply much more capital can be obtainable to assist tasks throughout the world.
“Producing as a lot of the energy that all of us use by way of renewables means is an important a part of the UK’s journey in direction of its Internet Zero targets.

“The native suggestions we’ve had about our concepts since we introduced our plans has typically been constructive, and we hope that South Lakeland District Council will permit us to increase the long-term contribution that the Armistead Wind Farm could make in direction of assembly our nation’s energy wants.”

For additional data on the Armistead Wind Farm, go to

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Port of Albany walks away from $29.5 million for wind turbine project



Swiss wind park ordered to scale back to protect birds

Credit score:  Port rankled feds after clearcutting Beacon Island, website of $350 million undertaking |

Larry Rulison |

Instances Union |

Sep. 28, 2022 |

ALBANY – The Port of Albany has determined to forgo $29.5 million in federal funding for the $350 million wind turbine tower manufacturing facility it needs to construct on the Hudson River to hurry up the allowing course of after falling delayed.

The funding – which had been allotted to the Port of Albany by the U.S. Division of Transportation – has been in jeopardy because the summer time when the port clear-cut greater than 80 acres of waterfront land within the city of Bethlehem with out federal permits.

At its month-to-month assembly Wednesday, port officers stated they have been withdrawing the grant software with DOT, permitting it to maneuver ahead extra rapidly with the undertaking, which have to be accomplished by the tip of subsequent yr.

“This was a tough choice, however one which we predict is essential to maneuver the undertaking ahead, and we’ve executed that in session with the undertaking companions, after all, with the purpose of constructing up the time that’s crucial for this undertaking’s timeline,” Megan Daly, the port’s chief industrial officer stated after asserting the choice.

It’s unclear how the port will exchange the funding, which was imagined to pay for infrastructure on the Hudson River website, often called Beacon Island.

The port purchased Beacon Island a number of years in the past in anticipation of setting up the power, which is being constructed for Equinor and its gear manufacturing companions, Marmen and Welcon.

Equinor, an energy firm owned by the federal government of Norway, is constructing a number of wind farms off the coast of Lengthy Island that can provide clear energy to the state in help of its purpose to succeed in one hundred pc emissions-free electrical energy by 2040.

Due to the federal funding, the port was required to undergo a separate assessment by the DOT’s Maritime Administration, or MARAD, earlier than clearing the land. After it obtained in bother with the federal company over the tree-cutting at Beacon Island, the port stopped all website preparation at Beacon Island. The transfer put the undertaking months delayed.

Port officers stated by dropping the grant request, MARAD will not maintain again the federal allowing course of that can now be led by the U.S. Military Corps of Engineers.

Earlier this yr, a gaggle of greater than 20 Glenmont residents sued the port and the city of Bethlehem for clearing 80 acres of land on the Hudson River for the undertaking allegedly with out offering correct notification to native householders. The group can also be fearful about coal fly ash protecting the location that was dumped there by a former Niagara Mohawk energy plant many years in the past. Fly ash could be poisonous, though it’s usually utilized in development supplies.

U.S. Senate Majority Chief Charles Schumer has championed the undertaking for years, securing the $29.5 million in December. On the time, Schumer stated the cash was important to the undertaking, giving the businesses concerned a significant sign that the plan would obtain the federal government help required within the trade, which could be unstable even because it grows quickly.

Schumer wrote a number of letters and made a name to Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg to foyer for the grant, which might have come from DOT’s Maritime Administration. The cash was a part of the $1 trillion infrastructure invoice that Schumer steered by the Senate and was signed by President Joseph Biden.

Allison Biasotti, a spokeswoman for Schumer, stated the bulk chief was “proud” to have secured the $29.5 million grant for the port however will “proceed to struggle to safe good-paying, clean-energy jobs within the Capital Area and to fight local weather change.” That features advantages of the newly handed Inflation Discount Act resembling wind manufacturing tax credit which she stated will present “new wind within the sails and make this Albany undertaking a hit.”

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